How Does a Pizza Oven Work

If you’ve never used a pizza oven before, you might wonder how does a pizza oven work. Pizza ovens are wonderful appliances that produce delicious pizzas. However, despite their usefulness, few people know how they work.

In this article, we’ll explain how pizza ovens work. Moreover, we’ll list different pizza ovens in greater detail, their components, and how to maintain and care for them.

Types of Pizza Ovens

There are different pizza ovens, and each one works slightly differently. Still, the main difference between all of them is the fuel they use to burn. Today, the most familiar fuels are gas and wood. However, chefs tend to use wood more since it is the traditional option and is cheaper than gas.

But regardless of the fuel that lights your oven, the heat generated and stored in the parts and components of the structure is what cooks the pizza. Like every other appliance, the more conversant you are with pizza oven components, the better you understand how the oven works. Consequently, the more efficient you become at using the oven itself.

So, to answer the question, “How does a pizza oven work?” we need to identify its components and discuss their functions.

Components of a Pizza Oven

A functional pizza oven consists of a dome, cooking floor, door, flue, and pyrometer. So, what does each element do, and how can you make the most of them while cooking pizza? Let’s settle that here.

1.   Dome

The dome is the hemispherical roof of the oven that absorbs heat from the burning fuel. After absorbing heat, the dome helps to contain the heat within the oven space and reflects it to the cooking floor where you have the pizza.

The part is designed so pizza ovens can attain the high temperature required for quick and thorough cooking. In addition, the dome also serves the dual purpose of maintaining temperature levels throughout the cooking.

2.   Door

Most of us only appreciate the door as the access point for bringing wood and pizza dough into the oven. Well, that’s just one of its multifaceted functions. It is also responsible for controlling combustion within the oven.

Another thing it does is the prevention of unnecessary heat loss to the external environment. Together with the dome, the door helps to maintain high temperatures within the cooking chamber.

3.   Flue

The Flue is the upward projection on top of the dome. Essentially, it helps channel smoke from the combustion in the oven outside. It is so positioned so that smoke can escape without having any significant effect on diners.

4.   Floor

The floor, commonly called the cooking floor, is the platform where reflected heat from the dome falls. It often consists of refractory materials capable of withstanding temperatures up to 930°F/500°C. In practice, this is the average temperature required to cook pizzas perfectly and thoroughly.

5.   Pyrometer

The pyrometer is the thermometer that monitors the rise and fall of temperature levels of the air in the oven space.

How Does a Pizza Oven Work?

Having discussed the parts of pizza ovens, we now have a sound basis for examining how the appliance works. So, how does a pizza oven workhow does a pizza oven work?

The heat produced after you light the oven fire and combustion starts heating the cooking chamber. In this process, the oven’s dome collects heat and reflects it to the oven floor. Heat transfer continues within the cooking chamber through conduction, convection, and radiation. However, all the parts retain the generated heat within the oven space till the cooking is completed.

Using the pyrometer, you need to keep an eye on the temperature to ensure it doesn’t fall from 930°F/500°C. Ideally, that’s what is required to cook pizza.

In a nutshell, the heat transfer and retention within the space create the “magic” in a pizza oven. As we noted earlier, this heat transfer occurs as conduction, convection, and radiation.

We know these are scientific concepts that not everyone understands. You need to have at least a basic idea of these three heat transfer mechanisms to grasp the working principle of your pizza oven. So let’s briefly look at each.

1.   Conduction

Conduction is the heat transfer mechanism through which heat moves from one point (the source) to another through direct contact. You can think of conduction as what happens to a stainless steel spoon inside a hot pot that is on fire.

In the case of a pizza oven, the pizza is in direct contact with the heated cooking floor. Here, heat is transferred from the surface of the cooking floor through its physical contact with the pizza.

2.   Convection

Convection is the movement of heat within a space through the air without physical contact between the source and the receiving body. When a fire is lit in a pizza oven, the hot air created within the cooking chamber also contributes to the cooking process.

For a traditional wood-fired oven, convection happens by the continuous inflow of cold air and the outflow of hot air through the flue. However, modern pizza ovens have in-built heating and ventilation systems that create artificial convection within the oven space. Two of those in-built systems are fans and heating coils.

3.   Radiation

Like convection, radiation also does not require physical contact between two bodies. As combustion continues in a pizza oven, the oven’s walls become hot, and the heat is transferred to the pizza on the cooking floor.

Through radiation, heat is also reflected from the dome to the cooking floor. As convection occurs, this helps compensate for the heat loss in the oven. It heats the cooking floor again to ensure the pizza cooks ideally.

How Do Pizza Ovens Retain Heat?

Primarily, pizza ovens retain heat through continuous heat transfer through conduction, convection, and radiation. Another commonly used method is preheating the oven walls before combustion. This can significantly help reduce heat loss when cooking eventually starts.

In fact, for some types of pizza, the heat generated from preheating may be enough to cook the pizza dough perfectly.

Caring for Your Pizza Oven

Significantly, how long your pizza oven will last depends on how well you take care of it. Besides optimizing performance, caring for your pizza oven also enhances the safety of the entire cooking process. Below are three easy ways to care for pizza ovens and slow aging.

1.   Cleaning

Endeavor to clean your pizza oven of ash weekly as it inhibits the efficiency of the oven’s performance. However, if you use your oven more frequently, you may need to increase the cleaning frequency to twice or more.

2.   Always Keep It Dry

Continuous exposure to environmental conditions like rain and UV radiation can lead to rapid aging. Thus, it is best to cover ovens when not in use. Alternatively, you could also heat your oven on low heat if it is impossible to cover. This would help to eliminate moisture and prolong its lifespan.

3.    Don’t Exceed the Recommended Heat Limit

Excessively high temperatures can harm your pizza oven. So, staying within the safe temperature range required for cooking your dish is always best. With the aid of the pyrometer, you can monitor the temperature levels and adjust the combustion if necessary.


Regardless of the type, all pizza ovens work via heat transfer within the cooking chamber through conduction, convection, and radiation. As long as these occur in an oven at a regulated temperature, cooking will always happen. If you need help deciding which type of pizza oven to invest in, you can learn more here.

Written By


Hi there, I'm Greg (also known as Herbie) and like most Aussies enjoy a good BBQ. I want to share with you some tips and recipes, along with gear that I like, to help you with your backyard barbecue and grilling hobbie.Anyway, have a look around and let me know what you think and happy BBQing. Cheers Herbie.

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